Go back to the main book page
Abad-Santos, A. (2020) ‘Performative Masculinity Is Making American Men Sick’, Vox, 10 August. Available at https://www.vox.com/platform/amp/the-goods/21356150/american-men-wont-wear-masks.
Agamben, G. (2020) ‘Becoming faceless’, Autonomies. Available at http://autonomies.org/2020/11/giorgio-agamben-becoming-faceless/.
Agamben, G. (2021) Where Are We Now? The Epidemic as Politics, translated by Valeria Dani, London: ERIS.
AHRQ (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality) (2018) 2018 National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report. Available at https://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhqdr18/index.html.
Alser, O., S. AlWaheidi, K. Elessi and H. Meghari (2020) ‘COVID-19 in Gaza: A pandemic spreading in a place already under protracted lockdown’, Journal of East Mediterranean Health 26(7): 762–763. https://doi.org/10.26719/emhj.20.089.
Alwan, N.A., R.A. Burgess, S. Ashworth, R. Beale, N. Bhadelia, D. Bogaert, et al. (2020) ‘Scientific Consensus on the Covid-19 Pandemic: We need to act now’, The Lancet 396(10260): 71-72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32153-X.
Andersen, H. (2012) ‘Mechanisms: What are they evidence for in evidence-based medicine?’, Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18(5): 992-999.
Anguyo,I. and L. Storer (2020) ‘In times of Covid-19 Kampala has become un-Ugandan’, LSE Blog, 9 April. Available at https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2020/04/09/kampala-epidemic-un-ugandan-society-in-times-covid-19/.
Anonymous (2021) ‘ICU is full of the unvaccinated – My patience with them is wearing thin’, The Guardian, 21 November. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/nov/21/icu-is-full-of-the-unvaccinated-my-patience-with-them-is-wearing-thin.
Anslow, L. (2021) ‘Lefties Planted the Anti-Science Seed Fueling Vaccine Skepticism’, The Daily Beast, 23 August. Available at https://www.thedailybeast.com/lefties-planted-the-anti-science-seed-fueling-vaccine-skepticism.
Anthony, A. (2020) Interview: Neil Fergusson: ‘I gave them an open goal to some extent’. The Guardian, 6 December. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/dec/06/professor-neil-ferguson-covid-modelling-epidemiologist-faces-of-2020.
Axe, D., W.M. Briggs and J.W. Richard (2020), The Price of Panic: How the Tyranny of Experts Turned a Pandemic into a Catastrophe, Regnery Publishing.
Bakan, J. (2003) The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power, Free Press.
Baker, M. (2006/2018) Translation and Conflict: A narrative account, London & New York: Routledge.
Bantiji, R. (2021) ‘Historical Evidence to Inform COVID-19 Vaccine Mandates’, The Lancet 397:10276, P791. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00267-1.
Batt-Rawden, S. (2021) ‘As a doctor, I think vaccines should be mandatory for healthcare workers’, Metro, 3 April. Available at https://metro.co.uk/2021/04/03/as-a-doctor-i-would-support-mandatory-vaccines-for-healthcare-workers-14328670/.
Begum, T. (2020) Veiled racism: How the law change on Covid-19 face coverings makes Muslim women feel’, The Independent, 26 June. Available at https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/face-covering-mask-racism-muslim-hate-crime-niqab-burqa-a9587476.html.
Beioley, K., G. Parker, D. Strauss, A. Hancock and S. Venkataramakrishnan (2021) ‘UK companies look to make Covid-19 vaccinations mandatory’, The Financial Times, 16 February. Available at https://www.ft.com/content/965dfaf0-f070-4dae-93a6-28bedbdb75da.
Bellon, T. and E.M. Johnson (2021) ‘From Boeing to Mercedes, a U.S. worker rebellion swells over vaccine mandates’, Reuters, 2 November. Available at https://www.reuters.com/world/us/boeing-mercedes-us-worker-rebellion-swells-over-vaccine-mandates-2021-11-02/.
Bennett, W. Lance and Murray Edelman (1985) ‘Toward a New Political Narrative’, Journal of Communication 35(4): 156-171.
Blunt, G.D. (2020) ‘Face Mask Rules: Do they really violate personal liberty?’, The Conversation, 31 July. Available at https://theconversation.com/face-mask-rules-do-they-really-violate-personal-liberty-143634.
Bolsover, G. (2020) ‘Balancing freedoms, rights and responsibilities during COVID in US:
A study of anti- and pro-restriction discourse’, 4 August. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3678626 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3678626
Brainard, J.S. , N. Jones, I. Lake, L. Hooper and P. Hunter (2020) ‘Facemasks and Similar Barriers to Prevent Respiratory Illness such as COVID-19: A rapid systematic review. MedRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.01.20049528.
Brewster, J. (2020) ‘Trump Again Promotes Experimental Drug For Coronavirus Treatment Hydroxychloroquine: “What Do I Know, I’m Not A Doctor. But I Have Common Sense”‘, Forbes Magazine, 5 April. Available at https://www.forbes.com/sites/jackbrewster/2020/04/05/trump-again-promotes-experimental-drug-for-coronavirus-treatment-hydroxychloroquine-what-do-i-know-im-not-a-doctor-but-i-have-common-sense/?sh=5c53fe2f4609.
Broadbent, A. and B.T.H. Smart (2020) ‘Why a one-size-fits-all approach to Covid-19 could have lethal consequences’, LSE Blog, 27 March. Available at https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2020/03/27/coronavirus-social-distancing-covid-19-lethal-consequences/.
Brookes, G. (2021) ‘COVID-19 vaccines & genetic modification’, Open Access Government, 3 June. Available at https://www.openaccessgovernment.org/covid-19-vaccines-genetic-modification/112020/.
Browne M (2018) ‘Epistemic Divides and Ontological Confusions’, Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 14(10): 2540-2542.
Bruner, Jerome (1991) ‘The Narrative Construction of Reality’, Critical Inquiry 18(1): 1-21.
Bruton, M. (2020) Morality, Epistemology, and Activism: How anti-vaccination advocates on Twitter construct a rhetoric of alternative immunity, MA thesis, Indiana: Purdue University.
Burls, A. (2009) ‘What is Critical Appraisal’, Evidence-based Medicine, Second edition, What Is …? Series. Available at http://www.bandolier.org.uk/painres/download/whatis/What_is_critical_appraisal.pdf.
Carothers, T. and B. Press (2020) ‘The Global Rise of Anti-Lockdown Protests – And What to Do About It’, World Politics Review. Available at https://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/29137/amid-the-covid-19-pandemic-protest-movements-challenge-lockdowns-worldwide.
Carr, D. (2021) ‘A Virus Without a World: The Politics of Science Writing’, The Nation, 7 September. Available at https://www.thenation.com/article/culture/carl-zimmer-virus/.
Cayley, D. (2020) ‘The Prognosis: Looking the Consequences in the Eye’, Literary Review of Canada, October. Available at https://reviewcanada.ca/magazine/2020/10/the-prognosis/.
Chabal, E. (2021) ‘The Real Reason France Is Skeptical of Vaccines’, Foreign Policy, 3 February. Available at https://foreignpolicy-com.ezproxy.uio.no/2021/02/03/the-real-reason-france-is-skeptical-of-vaccines/.
Christiansen, A.T., M.M. Andersen and K. Kappel (2019) ‘Are current EU policies on GMOs justified?’, Transgenic Research 28: 267–286.
Clark, R. (2021) ‘Austria Will Regret Mandatory Vaccinations’, The Spectator, 19 November. Available at https://www.spectator.co.uk/article/austria-will-come-to-regret-mandatory-vaccinations.
Clarke, R. (2020) ‘This man knows he’s dying as surely as I do’: a doctor’s dispatches from the NHS frontline’, The Guardian, 30 May. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/2020/may/30/this-man-knows-hes-dying-as-surely-as-i-do-a-doctors-dispatches-from-intensive-care.
Collins, S. (2020) ‘Trump’s promotion of unproven drugs is cause for alarm, but not because he’s making money off it’, Vox, 7 April. Available at https://www.vox.com/2020/4/7/21211872/trump-coronavirus-hydroxychloroquine-covid19-drugs-sanofi-owns.
Coman, J. (2020) ‘Lockdown is breeding resentment. The right can see that – does the left?’, The Guardian, 10 November. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/nov/10/populist-divisions-covid-nigel-farage-second-wave.
Cowburn, A. (2020) ‘Neil Ferguson: Government coronavirus adviser quits after home visit from married lover’, 5 May. Available at https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/neil-ferguson-resigns-coronavirus-antonia-staats-social-distancing-government-a9500581.html
Cullen, P. (2021) ‘GP Suspended by Medical Council over Refusal to Give Covid-19 Vaccine’, The Irish Times, 22 March. Available at https://www.irishtimes.com/news/health/gp-suspended-by-medical-council-over-refusal-to-give-covid-19-vaccine-1.4516239.
Czypionka, T., T. Greenhalgh, D. Bassler and M.B. Bryant (2020) ‘Masks and Face Coverings for the Lay Public: A narrative update’, Annals of Internal Medicine. DOI: https://doi-org.ezproxy.uio.no/10.7326/M20-6625.
Dangor, Z. and F. Sucker (2021) ‘South Africa has the legal tools to challenge the vaccine nationalism of rich countries’, Daily Maverick, 25 January. Available at https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2021-01-25-south-africa-has-the-legal-tools-to-challenge-the-vaccine-nationalism-of-rich-countries/.
Dawber, A. (2013) ‘Israel gave birth control to Ethiopian Jews without their consent’, The Independent, 27 January. Available at https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israel-gave-birth-control-to-ethiopian-jews-without-their-consent-8468800.html.
Department of Education (2021) Face Coverings in Education. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/967285/Face_coverings_in_education-March-2021.pdf.
Deoni, S. CL, J. Beauchemin, A. Volpe and V. D’Sa (2021) ‘Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Early Child Cognitive Development: Initial Findings in a Longitudinal Observational Study of Child Health’, medRxiv. doi:https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.10.21261846
Devina, E.A. (2008) The Ground of the Normative Force of Discourse: A Lonerganian Reconstruction of Habermas’s Communicative Rationality, ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI3310415.
Devlin, K. (2020) ‘Boris Johnson Calls Face Masks in Schools ‘Nonsensical’ Hours after Latest U-turn’, The Independent, 26 August. Available at https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/boris-johnson-face-masks-school-classroom-children-covid-19-a9689741.html.
Dominus, S. (2020) ‘The Covid Drug Wars that Pitted Doctor vs Doctor’, The New York Times, 5 August. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/05/magazine/covid-drug-wars-doctors.html.
Eaton, L. (2021) ‘Covid-19: WHO warns against “vaccine nationalism” or face further virus mutations’, BMJ 373:n292. Available at https://www-bmj-com.ezproxy.uio.no/content/372/bmj.n292.
Elgot, J. and J. Halliday (2020) ‘Boris Johnson Drops Advice against Face Mask Use in English Schools’, The Guardian, 25 August. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/aug/25/boris-johnson-drops-advice-against-face-mask-use-in-english-schools.
Elmer, S. (2020) ‘The Science and Law of Refusing to Wear Masks: Texts and Arguments in Support of Civil Disobedience’, Architects for Social Housing, 11 June. Available at https://theconversation.com/face-mask-rules-do-they-really-violate-personal-liberty-143634.
Engebretsen, E. and O.P. Ottersen (2021) ‘Vaccine Inequities, Intellectual Property Rights and Pathologies of Power in the Global Response to COVID-19’, International Journal of Health Policy Management. Doi 10.34172/ijhpm.2021.57.
Engebretsen, E., K. Heggen, S. Wieringa and T. Greenhalgh (2016) ‘Uncertainty and Objectivity in Clinical Decision Making: A clinical case in emergency medicine’, Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19(4): 595-603.
Engebretsen, E., N. Køpke Vøllestad, A. Klopstad Wahl, S. Robinson and K. Heggen (2015) ‘Unpacking the process of interpretation in evidence‐based decision making’, Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21(3): 529.
Euronews (2021) ‘COVID-19: Austria begins nationwide lockdown for unvaccinated people’, 15 November. Available at https://www.euronews.com/2021/11/14/covid-19-austrian-government-orders-lockdown-for-unvaccinated.
Evans, D. (2003) ‘Hierarchy of Evidence: A framework for ranking evidence evaluating healthcare interventions’, Journal of Clinical Nursing 12(1): 77-84.
Fancourt, D., A. Steptoe and L. Wright (2020) ‘The Cummings effect: politics, trust, and behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic’, The Lancet 396(10249): 464-465.
Felix, G. (2020) ‘Wearing a face mask helps protect me against Covid-19, but not against racism’, STAT, 13 May. Available at https://www.statnews.com/2020/05/13/black-man-think-twice-wearing-face-mask-in-public-racism/.
Feng, E. and A. Cheng (2020) ‘Restrictions and Rewards: How China Is locking down half a billion citizens’, NPR, 21 February. Available at https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/02/21/806958341/restrictions-and-rewards-how-china-is-locking-down-half-a-billion-citizens?t=1621332600454.
Firat, A.F. and N. Dholakia (1998) Consuming People: From political economy to matters of consumption, New York: Routledge.
Fisher, W.R. (1984) Narration as a Human Communication Paradigm: The case of public moral agreement, Communication Monographs 51: 1-22.
Fisher, W.R. (1985a) The Narrative Paradigm: An elaboration’, Communication Monographs 52: 347-367.
Fisher, W.R. (1985b) The Narrative Paradigm: In the beginning, Journal of Communication 35(4): 74-89.
Fisher, W.R. (1987/1989) Human Communication as Narration: Toward a philosophy of reason, value, and action, Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press.
Fisher, W.R. (1995) ‘Narration, knowledge, and the possibility of wisdom’, in W.R. Fisher and R.F. Goodman (eds) Rethinking knowledge: Reflections across the disciplines, New York: State University of New York Press, 169-192.
Fisher, W.R. (1997) ‘Narration, Reason, and Community’, in L.P. Hinchman and S.K. Hinchman (eds) Memory, Identity, Community: The idea of narrative in the human sciences, Albany: State University of New York Press, 307-327.
Forman, R., S. Shah, P. Jeurissen, M. Jit and E. Mossialos (2021) ‘COVID-19 Vaccine Challenges: What have we learned so far and what remains to be done?’, Health Policy 125(5): 553-567.
Frank, A. (1995) ‘The Wounded Storyteller: Body, illness and ethics’, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Franklin County Public Health (2020) COVID-19 General Guidance on Wearing Face Mask for African Americans and Communities of Color, April. Available at https://vax2normal.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Face_Mask_Racial_Equity_April.pdf.
Gaebnick, G.E. and M. Gusmano (2019) ‘Forget about ‘Because Science’’, Slate, 15 April. Available at https://slate.com/technology/2019/04/vaccination-values-science-based-policy.html.
Gandhi, M. (2016) A Guide to Health, New Delhi: Ocean Books.
Gaskin, I.M. (2003) Ina May’s Guide to Childbirth. New York: Bantam.
Goodman, B. (2020) ‘The Forgotten Science Behind Face Masks’, WebMD. Available at https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200826/the-forgotten-science-behind-face-masks.
Greenhalgh, T. (2016) Cultural Contexts of Health: The use of narrative research in the health sector, Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; (Health Evidence Network (HEN) synthesis report 49).
Greenhalgh, T. (2020a) ‘Face Coverings for the Lay Public: An alternative view’, The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, 27 May. Available at https://www.cebm.net/covid-19/face-coverings-for-the-lay-public-an-alternative-view/.
Greenhalgh, T. (2020b) ‘Face Coverings for the Public: Laying straw men to rest’, Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 26(4): 1070-1077.
Greenhalgh, T. and J. Howard (2020) ‘Masks for All? The science says yes. fast.ai. Available at https://www.fast.ai/2020/04/13/masks-summary/.
Greenhalgh, T., J. Howick and N. Maskrey N (2014) ‘Evidence based Medicine: A movement in crisis?’, BMJ 348.
Greenhalgh, T., M. McKee and M. Kelly-Irving (2020) ‘Opinion: The pursuit of herd immunity is a folly – so who’s funding this bad science?’, The Guardian, 18 October. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/oct/18/covid-herd-immunity-funding-bad-science-anti-lockdown.
Gust, D., C. Brown, K. Sheedy, B. Hibbs, D. Weaver and G. Nowak G (2005) ‘Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs among Parents: Beyond a dichotomous perspective’, American Journal of Health Behavior 29: 81–92.
Hacking I. (2001) An Introduction to Probability and Inductive Logic, Cambridge: Cambridge university press.
Harsin, J. (2020) ‘Toxic White Masculinity, Post-truth Politics and the Covid-19 Infodemic’, European Journal of Cultural Studies 23(6): 1060-1068.
Hasan, M. (2020) ‘The Coronavirus Is Empowering Islamophobes — but Exposing the Idiocy of Islamophobia’, The Intercept, 14 April. Available at https://theintercept.com/2020/04/14/coronavirus-muslims-islamophobia/.
Hawker, L. (2021) ‘Captain Tom Moore’s Barbados holiday: How trip completed a life-long dream for NHS hero’, Express, 3 February. Available at https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/1392458/tom-moore-barbados-holiday-trip-captain-tom-moore-dead-latest.
Hedgecoe, G. (2020) ‘Coronavirus: Spain’s children run free from lockdown – but not all’, BBC News, 26 April. Available at https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-52409407.
Hendrix, S. and S. Rubin (2021) ‘Violence erupts in Israel’s ultra-Orthodox neighborhoods over coronavirus restrictions’, The Washington Post, 26 January. Available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/ultra-orthodox-israel-police-covid/2021/01/25/2438e840-5ee3-11eb-a177-7765f29a9524_story.html.
Henry, E. (2021) ‘All Businesses are Essential’, EIN Presswire, 11 January. Available at https://www.einpresswire.com/article/534346395/all-businesses-are-essential.
Hickman, T. (2020) ‘The Use and Misuse of Guidance during the UK’s Coronavirus Lockdown’, 4 September, SSRN. Available at https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3686857.
Hitchins, P. (2020) ‘Face masks turn us into voiceless submissives – and it’s not science forcing us to wear them, it’s politics’, The Daily Mail, 19 July. Available at https://www.dailymail.co.uk/debate/article-8537489/PETER-HITCHENS-Face-masks-turn-voiceless-submissives.html.
Hollihan, T. and P. Riley (1987) ‘The Rhetorical Power of a Compelling Story: A Critique of a ‘Toughlove’ Parental Support Group’, Communication Quarterly 35(1): 13-25.
Homer, R. (2021) ‘Covax misses its 2021 delivery target – what’s gone wrong in the fight against vaccine nationalism?’, The Conversation, 17 September. Available at https://theconversation.com/covax-misses-its-2021-delivery-target-whats-gone-wrong-in-the-fight-against-vaccine-nationalism-167753?utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Latest%20from%20The%20Conversation%20for%20September%2020%202021%20-%202064720367&utm_content=Latest%20from%20The%20Conversation%20for%20September%2020%202021%20-%202064720367+CID_7733bf2baea34866c054ebb44819073c&utm_source=campaign_monitor_uk&utm_term=Covax%20misses%20its%202021%20delivery%20target%20%20whats%20gone%20wrong%20in%20the%20fight%20against%20vaccine%20nationalism.
Jamison, A.M., S.C. Quinn and V.S. Freimuth (2019) ‘“You don’t trust a government vaccine”: Narratives of institutional trust and influenza vaccination among African American and white adults’, Social Science & Medicine 221: 87-94.
Jiang, S. (2020) ‘Don’t rush to deploy COVID-19 vaccines and drugs without sufficient safety guarantees’, Nature 579: 321.
Kagumire, JR (2021) ‘The Colonial Overtones of Omicron Travel Bans’, Al Jazeera, 6 December. Available at https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwi074b4ntH0AhWGGuwKHaHiDKsQFnoECA4QAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.aljazeera.com%2Fopinions%2F2021%2F12%2F6%2Fthe-colonial-roots-of-western-responses-to-omicron&usg=AOvVaw0adkZmFhA7Pjq1j8qx3O64
Keene, D.R. (2020) ‘Does the lockdown breach the right to freedom of religion?’, UK Human Rights Blog, 30 November. Available at https://ukhumanrightsblog.com/2020/11/30/does-the-lockdown-breach-the-right-to-freedom-of-religion/.
Kennedy, J. (2019) ‘Populist Politics and Vaccine Hesitancy in Western Europe’, European Journal of Public Health 29(3): 512-516.
Kirkwood, W.G. (1992) ‘Narrative and the Rhetoric of Possibility’, Communication Monographs 59: 30-47.
Khan, A. (2021) ‘What is ‘vaccine nationalism’ and why is it so harmful?’, Aljazeera, 7 February. Available at https://www.aljazeera.com/features/2021/2/7/what-is-vaccine-nationalism-and-why-is-it-so-harmful.
Kim, T. (2018) ‘Goldman Sachs asks in biotech research report: ‘Is curing patients a sustainable business model?’’, CNBC, 11 April. Available at https://www.cnbc.com/2018/04/11/goldman-asks-is-curing-patients-a-sustainable-business-model.html.
Kirkwood, W.G. (1992) ‘Narrative and the Rhetoric of Possibility’, Communication Monographs 59(1): 30-47.
Kristeva, J. (1968) ‘La productivité dite texte’, Communications 11(1): 59-83.
Kristeva, J. (1969) Semeiotiké: Recherches pour une sémanalyse, Paris: Points.
Kristeva, J. (1980) Desire in Language: A semiotic approach to literature and art, Columbia University Press.
Kristian, B. (2020) ‘The Strange Conflation of Masks and Masculinity’, The Week, 14 May. Available at https://theweek.com/articles/914223/strange-conflation-masks-masculinity.
Kum, D. (2020) ‘Fueled by a History of Mistreatment, Black Americans Distrust the New COVID-19 Vaccines’, Time, 28 December. Available at https://time.com/5925074/black-americans-covid-19-vaccine-distrust/.
Lagman, J.D.N. (2021) ‘Vaccine Nationalism: A predicament in ending the COVID-19 pandemic’, Journal of Public Health 43(2): e375-e376. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdab088.
Larson, H.J. (2020) Stuck: How vaccine rumors start – and why they don’t go away, Oxford University Press.
Lazarus, J.V., S.C. Ratzan, A. Palayew et al. (2021) ‘A global survey of potential acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine’, Nature Medicine 27: 225–228. https://doi-org.ezproxy.uio.no/10.1038/s41591-020-1124-9.
Lee, T. and C. Holt (2021) ‘Intellectual Property, COVID-19 Vaccines, and the Proposed TRIPS Waiver’, American Action Forum, 10 May. Available at https://www.americanactionforum.org/insight/intellectual-property-covid-19-vaccines-and-the-proposed-trips-waiver/#ixzz770IqwWVm.
Lewis, N. (2020) ‘The dangerous rise of rule by experts’, Spiked, 28 April. Available at https://www.spiked-online.com/2020/04/28/the-dangerous-rise-of-rule-by-experts/.
Linnane, C. (2021) ‘Austria locks down its unvaccinated, and Netherlands reimposes restrictions, as Europe battles surge in COVID cases’, MarketWatch, 15 November. Available at https://www-marketwatch-com.ezproxy.uio.no/story/austria-locks-down-its-unvaccinated-and-netherlands-reimposes-restrictions-as-europe-battles-surge-in-covid-cases-11636990781.
Lonergan, B. (1992) Insight. A Study of Human Understanding, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Lonergan, B. (1996) ‘The Analogy of Meaning’, Philosophical and Theological Papers 1958–1964, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Lowe, Y. (2020) ‘Gang members wearing coronavirus medical masks to disguise themselves, The Telegraph, 21 March. Available at https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/03/21/gang-members-wearing-coronavirus-medical-masks-disguise/.
Mallapaty, S. (2021) ‘Omicron-variant Border Bans Ignore the Evidence, Say Scientists’, Nature, 2 December. Available at https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-03608-x.
Malone, K.M. and A.R. Hinman (2007) ‘Vaccination Mandates: The Public Health Imperative and Individual Rights’, in R.A. Goodman, R.E. Hoffman, W. Lopez, G.W. Matthews, M. Rothstein and K. Foster (eds) Law in Public Health Practice, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/imz-managers/guides-pubs/downloads/vacc_mandates_chptr13.pdf.
Marcus, J. (2020) ‘The Dudes Who Won’t Wear Masks’, The Atlantic, 23 June. Available at https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/06/dudes-who-wont-wear-masks/613375/.
Martin, G., E. Hanna and R. Dingwall (2020a) ‘Response to Greenhalgh et al.’, BMJ Rapid Responses. Available at https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1435/rr‐43.
Martin, G., E. Hanna, M. McCartney and R. Dingwall (2020b) ‘Science, Society, and Policy in the Face of Uncertainty: Reflections on the debate around face coverings for the public during COVID-19’, Critical Public Health 30(5): 501-508.
Mayta, R., K.K. Shailaja and A. Nyong’o (2021) ‘Vaccine nationalism is killing us. We need an internationalist approach’, The Guardian
McBee, T.P. (2019) ‘Toxic Masculinity Is Under Attack. That’s fine’, Vox, 22 January. Available at https://www.vox.com/first-person/2019/1/22/18188776/toxic-masculinity-gillette-ad-apa-guidelines.
McClure, K. (2009) ‘Resurrecting the Narrative Paradigm: Identification and the Case of Young Earth Creationism’, Rhetoric Society Quarterly 39(2): 189-211.
McGee, M.C. and J.S. Nelson (1985) ‘Narrative Reason in Public Argument’, Journal of Communication 35(4): 139-155.
McKelvey, T. (2020) ‘Coronavirus: Why are Americans so angry about masks?’, BBC News, 20 July. Available at https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-53477121.
Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962) Phenomenology of Perception, translated from the French by Colin Smith, Humanities Press.
Mezzadra, S. and M. Steirl (2020) ‘What happens to freedom of movement during a pandemic?’, OpenDemocracy, 24 March. Available at https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/can-europe-make-it/what-happens-freedom-movement-during-pandemic/.
Milko, V. (2020) ‘Concern among Muslims over Halal Status of COVID-19 Vaccine’, ABC News, 20 December. Available at https://abcnews.go.com/Health/wireStory/concern-muslims-halal-status-covid-19-vaccine-74826269.
Morgan, W. (2021) ‘Anti-vaxxers are weaponising the vaccine hesitancy of Black communities’, The Conversation, 26 January. Available at https://tinyurl.com/nrka2vca.
Morooka, J. (2002) ‘Bourdieusean Criticism of the Narrative Paradigm: The case of historical texts’, ISSA Porceedings 2002. Available at https://rozenbergquarterly.com/issa-proceedings-2002-bourdieuian-criticism-of-the-narrative-paradigm-the-case-of-historical-textsi/?print=pdf.
Munroe, S. (2020) ‘Commentary: With Liberty and Face Masks for All’, The Herald, 16 August. Available at https://www.heraldnet.com/opinion/commentary-with-liberty-and-face-masks-for-all/.
Murphy, R. (2020) ‘The Great Barrington Declaration has Nothing to do with Epidemiology and a Great Deal to do with Far Right Economics’, Brave New Europe, 13 October. Available at https://braveneweurope.com/richard-murphy-the-great-barrington-declaration-has-nothing-to-do-with-epidemiology-and-a-great-deal-to-do-with-far-right-economics.
NIPH (2020a) ‘Recommendations about Face Masks’, 14 August. Available at https://www.fhi.no/en/archive/covid-19-archive/COVID-19-archived-news-from-2020/aug/recommendations-about-face-masks/.
NIPH (2020b) ‘Face Masks and Visor Use by the General Public’, 29 October. Available at https://www.fhi.no/en/op/novel-coronavirus-facts-advice/facts-and-general-advice/munnbind-i-befolkningen/.
O’Brien, K. (2020) ‘Are Coronavirus Policies Aiding Criminal Activity’, Colligan Law, 3 June. Available at https://insights.colliganlaw.com/post/102g8o2/are-coronavirus-policies-aiding-criminal-activity.
O’Connor, R. (2021) ‘’Conscientious objector’ Irish GP suspended by Medical Council for refusing to vaccinate patients’, The Irish Post, 22 March. Available at https://www.irishpost.com/news/conscientious-objector-irish-gp-suspended-by-medical-council-for-refusing-to-vaccinate-patients-207027.
O’Grady, S. (2021) ‘This is what we do about anti-vaxxers: No job. No entry. No NHS access’, The Independent, 18 May. Available at https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/antivaxxers-vaccine-coronavirus-nhs-b1849437.html.
Olmstead, M. (2021) ‘Why a Prominent Group of Catholic Bishops Is Objecting to the Johnson & Johnson Vaccine’, Slate, 4 March. Available at https://slate.com/human-interest/2021/03/johnson-and-johnson-vaccine-catholic-bishops-objections.html.
Orange, R. (2020) ‘As the rest of Europe lives under lockdown, Sweden keeps calm and carries on’, The Guardian, 28 March. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/28/as-the-rest-of-europe-lives-under-lockdown-sweden-keeps-calm-and-carries-on.
Pabst, A. (2021) ‘Rethinking Evidence-based Policy’, National Institute Economic Review 255: 85-91.
Philipose, R. (2020) ‘Covid-19: A look at anti-mask rallies held around the world amid the pandemic’, The Indian Express, 6 September. Available at https://indianexpress.com/article/world/covid-19-a-look-at-anti-mask-rallies-held-around-the-world-amid-the-pandemic-6585722/.
Phillips, T. (2020) ‘Brazil: Bolsonaro reportedly uses homophobic slur to mock masks’, The Guardian, 8 July. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jul/08/bolsonaro-masks-slur-brazil-coronavirus.
PopMatters (2020) ‘‘Anti-Vaxxers: How to Challenge a Misinformed Movement’: Excerpt’, 9 September. Available at https://www.popmatters.com/jonathan-m-berman-anti-vaxxers-2647525642.html?rebelltitem=1#rebelltitem1.
Press Association (2021) ‘Boris Johnson says sorry for not wearing mask on hospital visit’, The Free Press, 17 November. Available at https://www.denbighshirefreepress.co.uk/news/national/19723707.boris-johnson-says-sorry-not-wearing-mask-hospital-visit/.
Qvortrup, M. and E.B. Nielsen (2019) ‘Dwelling Narratively: Exploring Heideggerian Perspectives in the Narrative Paradigm’, Philosophy and Rhetoric 52(2): 142-162.
Repucci, S. and A. Slipowitz (2020) Democracy under Lockdown, Freedom House. Available at https://freedomhouse.org/report/special-report/2020/democracy-under-lockdown.
Richards, J.W., D. Axe and W.M. Briggs (2020) ‘Covid-19: The tyranny of experts’, Religion & Liberty 30(4). Available at https://www.acton.org/religion-liberty/volume-30-number-4/covid-19-tyranny-experts.
Roberts, K.G. (2004) ‘Texturing the Narrative Paradigm: Folklore and communication’, Communication Quarterly 52(2): 129-142.
Rone, J. (2021) ‘Social Media Disinformation and Vaccine Hesitancy: It’s more complicated than that’, Power-Switch, Blog of the Minderoo Centre for Technology and Democracy, University of Cambridge, 13 February. Available at https://powerswitchorg.wordpress.com/2021/02/13/social-media-disinformation-and-vaccine-hesitancy-its-more-complicated-than-that/.
Rowland, R. (1987) ‘Narrative: Mode of discourse or paradigm’, Communication Monographs 54: 264-275.
Rutschman, A.S. (2020) ‘The Reemergence of Vaccine Nationalism’, Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 3 July. Available at https://gjia.georgetown.edu/2020/07/03/the-reemergence-of-vaccine-nationalism/.
Rutter, H., M. Wolpert and T. Greenhalgh (2020) ‘Managing Uncertainty in the Covid-19 Era’, BMJ 370:m3349. Doi: 10.1136/bmj.m3349.
Sackett, D.L., M.C.W. Rosenberg, M. Gray, B.R. Haynes and S.W. Richardson (1996) ‘Evidence Based Medicine: What it is and what it isn’t’, BMJ 312(7023): 71–72.
Sadler, N. (2022) Fragmented Narrative; Telling and Interpreting Stories in the Twitter Age, London & New York: Routledge.
Sample, I. (2021) Vaccine Hesitancy in Some Health Workers in England ‘May Undermine Rollout’, The Guardian, 14 February. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/feb/14/vaccine-rollout-caution-some-health-workers-england.
Schofield, K. (2020) ‘Coronavirus: Wearing face masks makes no difference to spread of disease, insists UK medical chief’, PoliticsHome, 3 April. Available at https://www.politicshome.com/news/article/coronavirus-wearing-face-masks-makes-no-difference-to-spread-of-disease-insists-uk-medical-chief.
Schurman, R. and W. Munro (2009) ‘Targeting Capital: A cultural economy approach to understanding the efficacy of two anti-genetic engineering movements’, AJS: American Journal of Sociology 115(1): 155-202.
Schwab, T. (2020) ‘Are Bill Gates’s Billions Distorting Public Health Data?’, The Nation, 3 December. Available at https://www.thenation.com/article/society/gates-covid-data-ihme/.
Shell, E.R. (2020) ‘Act now, wait for perfect evidence later, says ‘high priestess’ of U.K. Covid-19 masking campaign’, Science. Available at https://www-sciencemag-org.ezproxy.uio.no/news/2020/10/act-now-wait-perfect-evidence-later-says-high-priestess-uk-covid-19-masking-campaign.
Shields, B. (2021) ‘AstraZeneca creator says Australia’s mixed messages on vaccine may cost lives’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 30 July. Available at https://www.smh.com.au/world/europe/astrazeneca-creator-says-australia-s-mixed-messages-on-vaccine-may-cost-lives-20210730-p58e8v.html.
Sibanda, E.L. and M. Taegtmeyer (2020) Inequalities in Uptake of HIV Testing Despite Scale-up, The Lancet Global Health 8(6). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30208-4.
Siddiqui, Z. (2021) ‘In Pakistan, Legacy of Fake CIA Vaccination Programs Leads to Vaccine Hesitancy’, Vice (World News), 9 March. Available at https://www.vice.com/amp/en/article/5dpvkd/in-pakistan-legacy-of-fake-cia-vaccination-programs-leads-to-vaccine-hesitancy?__twitter_impression=true.
Siegel, E. (2017) ‘The Real Problem with Charles Murray and “The Bell Curve”’, Scientific American, 12 April. Available at https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/voices/the-real-problem-with-charles-murray-and-the-bell-curve/.
Sky News (2021) ‘Microsoft founder Bill Gates warns of bioterrorist attacks and urges world leaders to use ‘germ games’ to prepare in interview with Jeremy Hunt’, 6 November. Available at https://news.sky.com/story/microsoft-founder-bill-gates-warns-of-bioterrorist-attacks-and-urges-world-leaders-to-use-germ-games-to-prepare-in-interview-with-jeremy-hunt-12459391.
Smith, C. (2021) ‘Plagues and classical history – what the humanities will tell us about COVID in years to come, The Conversation, 11 August. Available at https://theconversation.com/plagues-and-classical-history-what-the-humanities-will-tell-us-about-covid-in-years-to-come-165848?utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Latest%20from%20The%20Conversation%20for%20August%2012%202021%20-%202029219951&utm_content=Latest%20from%20The%20Conversation%20for%20August%2012%202021%20-%202029219951+CID_f7780761e36e4c1708b6ec4dee6c7f6a&utm_source=campaign_monitor_uk&utm_term=how%20history%20tends%20to%20play%20out.
Snowdon, C.J. (2021) Rise of the Coronavirus Cranks. Quillette, 16 January. Available at https://quillette.com/2021/01/16/rise-of-the-coronavirus-cranks/.
Solomon, M. (2015) Making Medical Knowledge, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Soucheray, S. (2020) ‘Controversy on Covid-19 Mask Study Spotlights Messiness of Science during a Pandemic’, CIDRAP (Centre for Infectious Disease Research and Policy), 24 June. Available at https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2020/06/controversy-covid-19-mask-study-spotlights-messiness-science-during.
Spitzer, M. (2020) ‘Masked Education? The benefits and burdens of wearing face masks in schools during the current Corona pandemic’, Trends in Neuroscience and Education 20(100138). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tine.2020.
Sridhar, G. (2020) ‘Continual Lockdowns Are Not the Answer to Bringing Covid Under Control’, The Guardian, 10 October. Available at https://amp.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/oct/10/continual-local-lockdowns-answer-covid-control?__twitter_impression=true.
Stache, L.C. (2018) ‘Fisher Narrative Paradigm’, in M. Allen (ed.) The SAGE Encyclopedia of Communication Research Methods, Thousand Oaks: Sage, 576-578.
Stengers, I. (2013) Sciences et pouvoirs: la démocratie face à la technoscience. La Découverte.
Stevenson, A. (2021) ‘“My body is a temple”: Vaccine hesitancy, religious exemptions, and the integrity of Christian witness’, ABC, 11 October. Available at https://www.abc.net.au/religion/vaccines-religious-exemptions-and-christian-witness/13580026.
Stewart, H. (2020) ‘Neil Ferguson: UK coronavirus adviser resigns after breaking lockdown rules’, The Guardian, 5 May. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/may/05/uk-coronavirus-adviser-prof-neil-ferguson-resigns-after-breaking-lockdown-rules.
Storer, L. and K. Dawson (2020) ‘Perspectives from Uganda’s borders on containing COVID-19’, LSE Blog, 8 April. Available at https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2020/04/08/perspectives-from-ugandas-borders-on-containing-covid-19/.
Strong, G. (2021) ‘Captain Sir Tom Moore’s family are ‘hurt’ by cruel Barbados comments’, Hello, 3 February. Available at https://www.hellomagazine.com/celebrities/20210203106000/captain-sir-tom-moore-family-hurt-barbados-comments/.
Stroud, S.R. (2002) ‘Multivalent Narratives: Extending the narrative paradigm with insights from ancient Indian philosophical texts, Western Journal of Communication 66(3): 369-393.
Stroud, S.R. (2016) ‘Narrative Rationality’, in K.B. Jensen and R.T. Craig (eds) The International Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Philosophy, John Wiley. DOI 10.1002/9781118766804.wbiect050.
Stutts, N.C. (1999) ‘The Use of Narrative Paradigm Theory in Assessing Audience Value Conflict in Image Advertising’, Management Communication Quarterly 13(2): 209-244.
Susam-Sarajeva, Ş. (2020) Translating Birth Stories as Counter Narratives, Mutatis Mutandis 13(1): 45-63.
Talic, S., S. Shah, H. Wild et al. (2021) ‘Effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality’, BMJ 375: e068302. DOI https://doi-org.ezproxy.uio.no/10.1136/bmj-2021-068302.
Tang, J. (2020) ‘Expert Reaction to Barrington Declaration, an Open Letter Arguing against Lockdown Policies and for ‘Focused Protection’, Science Media Centre, 6 October. Available at https://www.sciencemediacentre.org/expert-reaction-to-barrington-declaration-an-open-letter-arguing-against-lockdown-policies-and-for-focused-protection/.
Tavernise, S. (2021) ‘Vaccine Skepticism Was Viewed as a Knowledge Problem. It’s Actually About Gut Beliefs’, The New York Times, 6 May. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2021/04/29/us/vaccine-skepticism-beliefs.html.
Theobald, B. (2019) ‘A 1970 Law Led to the Mass Sterilization of Native American Women. That History Still Matters’, Time, 28 November. Available at https://time-com.ezproxy.uio.no/5737080/native-american-sterilization-history/.
Tilley, H. (2020) ‘COVID-19 across Africa: Colonial Hangovers, Racial Hierarchies, and Medical Histories’, Journal of West African History 6(2): 155-179.
Timmermans, S. and M. Berg (2003) The Gold Standard: The Challenge of Evidence-Based Medicine and Standardization in Health Care, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Torjesen, I. (2020) ‘Covid-19: Pre-purchasing vaccine—sensible or selfish?’, BMJ 370:m3226. Available at https://www-bmj-com.ezproxy.uio.no/content/370/bmj.m3226?int_source=trendmd&int_medium=cpc&int_campaign=usage-042019.
Urrutia, M.L. (2021) ‘COVID data is complex and changeable – expecting the public to heed it as restrictions ease is optimistic’, The Conversation, 16 July. Available at https://theconversation.com/covid-data-is-complex-and-changeable-expecting-the-public-to-heed-it-as-restrictions-ease-is-optimistic-164609?utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Latest%20from%20The%20Conversation%20for%20July%2019%202021%20-%202006519710&utm_content=Latest%20from%20The%20Conversation%20for%20July%2019%202021%20-%202006519710+CID_31cb25906cf5587437ba1e4758e56645&utm_source=campaign_monitor_uk&utm_term=make%20sense%20of%20all%20the%20data.
Vogel, G. (2021) ‘It’s been so, so surreal.’ Critics of Sweden’s lax pandemic policies face fierce backlash, Science, 6 October. Available at https://www-sciencemag-org.ezproxy.uio.no/news/2020/10/it-s-been-so-so-surreal-critics-sweden-s-lax-pandemic-policies-face-fierce-backlash.
Walker, A. (2020) ‘National talk radio hosts reject calls for masks, echoed by local hosts in at least one coronavirus hot spot’, Mediamatters for America, 7 February. Available at https://www.mediamatters.org/coronavirus-covid-19/national-talk-radio-hosts-reject-calls-masks-echoed-local-hosts-least-one.
Walravens, T. and P. O’Shea (2020) COVID: Why are Swedish towns banning masks? The Conversation, 8 February. Available at https://www-sciencemag-org.ezproxy.uio.no/news/2020/10/it-s-been-so-so-surreal-critics-sweden-s-lax-pandemic-policies-face-fierce-backlash.
Warnick, B. (1987) ‘The Narrative Paradigm: Another story’, Quarterly Journal of Speech 73: 172-182.
Weiner, S., K. Lavery and D. Nardi (2020) The Global Response to the Coronavirus: Impact on religious practice and religious freedom, Factsheet: Coronavirus, United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, March. Available at https://www.uscirf.gov/sites/default/files/2020%20Factsheet%20Covid-19%20and%20FoRB.pdf.
Weintraub, R., A. Bitton and M.L. Rosenberg (2020) ‘The Danger of Vaccine Nationalism’, Harvard Business Review, 22 May. Available at https://hbr-org.ezproxy.uio.no/2020/05/the-danger-of-vaccine-nationalism.
WHO (2020a) ‘Advice on the Use of Masks in the context of COVID-19’, Interim Guidance, 6 April. Available at https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331693/WHO-2019-nCov-IPC_Masks-2020.3-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
WHO (2020b) ‘Advice on the Use of Masks in the context of COVID-19’, Interim Guidance, 5 June. Available at https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/332293/WHO-2019-nCov-IPC_Masks-2020.4-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
WHO (2020c) ‘Mask Use in the Context of COVID-19’, 1 December. Downloadable from https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1319378/retrieve.
Wieringa, S., D. Dreesens, F. Forland et al. (2018a) ‘Different Knowledge, Different Styles of Reasoning: A challenge for guideline development’, BMJ Evid Based Med 23(3): 87-91. doi:10.1136/bmjebm-2017-110844.
Wieringa, S., E. Engebretsen, K. Heggen and T. Greenhalgh (2018b) ‘Rethinking bias and truth in evidence-based health care’, Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24(5): 940-938.
Wilkinson, A. (2020) ‘The impact of Covid-19 in informal settlements – are we paying enough attention?’, Institute of Development Studies, 17 March. Available at https://www.ids.ac.uk/opinions/the-impact-of-covid-19-in-informal-settlements-are-we-paying-enough-attention/.
Willingham, E. (2020) ‘The Condoms of the Face: Why Some Men Refuse to Wear Masks’, Scientific American, 29 June. Available at https://www-scientificamerican-com.ezproxy.uio.no/article/the-condoms-of-the-face-why-some-men-refuse-to-wear-masks/.
Wittner, R. (2021) ‘Anti-Maskers Protest outside Beverly Hills Sephora, Patch, 7 April. Available at https://patch.com/california/beverlyhills/anti-maskers-protest-outside-beverly-hills-sephora.
Wolfe, R.M. and L.K. Sharp (2002) ‘Anti-vaccinationists Past and Present’, BMJ 325: 430-432.
Wright, A. (2020) ‘Harris Study: Political messaging outweighs other factors in face mask usage, UChicago News, 21 October. Available at https://news.uchicago.edu/story/who-does-or-doesnt-wear-mask-partisanship-explains-response-covid-19.
Wright, N. (2020) ‘Coronavirus and the Future of Surveillance’, Foreign Affairs, 6 April. Available at https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2020-04-06/coronavirus-and-future-surveillance.
Young, T. (2021) The Case Against Lockdown: A reply to Christopher Snowdon. Quillette, 5 February. Available at https://quillette.com/2021/02/05/the-case-against-lockdown-a-reply-to-christopher-snowdon/.
Zhang, Renyi, Yixin Li, Annie L. Zhang, Yuan Wang and Mario J. Molina (2020) ‘Identifying Airborne Transmission as the Dominant Route for the Spread of COVID-19’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Available at https://www-pnas-org.ezproxy.uio.no/content/117/26/14857.
Zine, J. (2020) ‘Unmasking the Racial Politics of the Coronovirus Pandemic’, The Conversation, 3 June. Available at https://theconversation.com/unmasking-the-racial-politics-of-the-coronavirus-pandemic-139011.